Media / Technology

Saturday, September 24th, 2011

Media in Space and Time

In the mid to late 1800’s, traveling journalist became necessary for newspapers to satisfy the desire of communities for information during the Civil War. In order to obtain information, the journalists would have to travel to the news source, obtain the information, and then travel back.

By the late 19th century, the journalist no longer had to travel back to send the information; the telegraph allowed the information to be sent over large distances instantly. The seperation of the individual and the news was no longer seperated with time (space without time) and the Media Event was born.

In the mid and late 20th Century, the radio, television and early internet helped bring about a contious coverage of events (both news and media events). Instead of these events being viewed as singular points in time, they began to have depth in time.

By the early 21st century the way that media covered the event became variable. Coverage of the media event could be split into peices and intermixed, thus augmenting the sense of time of the Media Coverage. Another method has been to displace the coverage of the event closer to the individual; accomplished by outsourcing filming of the event to sources more local to the Media Event. This distorts the sense of both space and time.

Many of these models attempt to allow the individual to feel like they are a part of the Media Event, suggesting the absence of differenciation in space & time between the individual and the media event.

Friday, September 23rd, 2011

Game related tourism for the Olympic city itself.

More common for the Summer Olympic games.
– Summer Olypics Cities
– larger  cities
– large population
– major commercial funding
– much more popular and greater media coverage.

Recent Olympic City Examples:

Athens- 2004
– tried to follow the Barcelona plan but lacked the urban development strategy of it.
– decided to focus more on business and tourism after the Olympics rather than before.
– scatteredness of the venues rather than more centrally located.
– was still a overall success.

Beijing- 2008
– goal was to promote the traditional Chinese culture, showcase the history and development of the city as well as the friendliness and hospitality of its citizens.
– did not have that great of a media leveraging strategy.
– China’s society was at odd with the western world due to its record on human rights.
– even with it’s issues with the media, Beijing was a largely successful game.

Friday, September 23rd, 2011

Tourism in the wider region of the location of the Olympics


Easier and more common for Winter Olympics games.
– Winter Olympics Cities
– smaller  cities
– less population
– less commercial funding
– large number of sports located outside of the city.
– able to promote surrounding attractions such as ski resorts.

Recent Olympic City Examples:

Sydney – 2000
– surrounding areas attracted tourist as well. (Apposed to what Atlanta did, which was to tell the surrounding states to stay away.)
– tourism did increase after the games but was derailed by the travel panic caused by Sept. 11th.

Salt Lake City – 2002
– pre-Olympics Salt Lake City was mostly a domestic tourism location
– goal was economic development and tourism.
– tourism plan consisted of the 1000 day plan, 150 days before and 850 days after.

Turino – 2006
– tourism model based off of Barcelona Olympics
– wanted to become a tourism destination of the world as well as in Italy.
– advertising approach involved attracting tourism before the game, starting right after receiving the bid to way after
the ends of the games.
– Because of many sports located outside of the city, there was a major increase in transportation, therefore better infrastructure for both winter and summer sports outside the city.

Vancouver -2010
– used Salt lake City as an example because also in North America
– tourism plan involved from 2008 to 2015
– Oregon took advantage of the proximity to Vancouver.
– attracted athletes for acclimatizing training
– attracted skier and snowboarders that would be avoiding the Vancouver and Whistler ski resorts close to and during the Olympics.



Friday, September 23rd, 2011

The Media Apparatus


Most newsworthy events fall into two general catagories; News and Media Events.  News events are those events which can be represented as a set of information (the score was 5 to 4 in the Soccer game last night). These events can be represented as points in time. A media event is the coverage and narrative surrounding an occasion.

A Media event has particular identifiers as listed above. Events tend to fit in a 5 categories; Occasion of State, Contest, Heroic Mission, High Holiday, and the “occasion”. Of particular interest to the area of sports journalism is Contest and Heroic Mission.

With the growing ability for event coverage to effect the event itself, a third category should be introduced the, “Paradigmatic Media Event”. This category looks to the way that the viewer sees themsleves in relation to the media event as well as the the way that the reporter or journalist intereacts with the event. In particular, the way in which a particular media event is approached can be categorized as “High Ritual” or “High Drama”. The journalist can choose to look at a particular event with reverence and respect or investigate with reproach and scepticism. With this in mind, the effect that the ritualized or dramatized coverage has on a viewer  can be emotional, symbolic or both. This also effects the way in which the journalists and producers choose to report an event.

Friday, September 23rd, 2011

Broadcasting Fees


As shown in the graph displaying the number of countries broadcasting the Olympics and the revenue received from it, the fees for broadcasting the Olympics in the U.S. as greatly increased.  Since the start of the broadcast of the Olympics in the 1960’s the fees that television networks were willing to pay for broadcasting rights for the Olympic games in the US has steadily increased sometimes even doubling from one year to the next.  When comparing the revenue gained from broadcasting to the fees paid for US broadcasting rights, the US fees make up a large majority of that revenue earned.  This is interesting, showing how much the Olympic games and viewing them means for marketing and advertising and how profitable those advertisements can be.



Friday, September 23rd, 2011

The Media Event as an Aparatus for Time and Space


The Media Event as an Aparatus for Time and Space

The Media event can be conceptualized as a massive occasion in respect to both time and space. These events tend to revolve around news events ( a distiction to be made later) but are intensified through a period of speculation, coverage, and post event analysis. Sports journalism finds itself in the midst of the “media event” as an apparatus for effecting both time and space.

As this graphic illustrates, the media event is a significant part of the identity of an event. The individuals involved in the viewing and participation in the event are largely dislocated through space (specificly distance) and, in many cases, time ( this is a siginficant departure from previous interpretations of the Media event which speculate that it must be a live broadcast. Yet, the realm of the media event has not had a significant change since the use of broadcast delay as a means of sensoring (the Super Bowl is an example of this since the 2004 half time show with Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson) as well as time delay to account for time zone differences (NBC’s use of ‘plausably live’ editing during the 2000 Sydney Olympics).

In the absence of the ‘live transmission’ requirement for media events, the essential guidelines include: preplanned event, framed in time and space, featuring a heroic personality or group, having high dramatic or ritual significance, and the force of a social norm which makes viewing mandatory.

Yet the most important aspect of these occurances is the interaction with the viewer. The inclusion of the self (even seperated by time and space) creates a world network which can “transport us simultaneously to where the event is taking place”(Elihu Katz, “Media Events: The Sense of Occasion”).

Sports “… is essential to the globalizing structure of media organizations. Sports is a relatively cheap method for filling hours of television time and moves easily across cultural and linguistic borders,” (Nancy K. Rivenburgh, “The Olympic Games: Twenty-First Century Challenges as a Global Media Event”). Sport Events fit will as national and global Media Events because they do not depend on culturally or socially unique elements. As such, it sits well as a unifier accross these many cultures and societies. As it stands, some of the most infulencal global media events are sports: the Winter Olympics, Summer Olympics, The World Cup, the Americas Cup, etc.  The World Cup, for example receives viewerships numbering in the billions.

Sunday, September 18th, 2011

LED Lights Make Augmented Vision a Reality


“University of Washington researchers have figured out how to implant semitransparent red and blue LED lights in contact lenses, for the purpose of receiving and displaying data in sharp visual images and video. This means wearers will literally be able to watch TV or view photos that are projected directly onto their eyeballs.”


– How will this new way of perceiving change the way that people watch the Olympics in the future?

Friday, September 16th, 2011

Sports Journalism as Insight to Bias and Perspective in Event Coverage
Sports journalism seems to be the journalism which accepts its story-telling roles and partnerships with advertising and entertainment. Yet it still suggest that cultural and moral values are alluded in sports reporting.
The implication that sports reporting emphasizes storytelling and plot over impartial truth telling  isparticularly interesting in contrast to other forms of journalistic endeavors . For sports journalists, there seems to be a sense that what is being reported is of personal interest, which knowingly or unknowingly creates a tone in their writing. Sports journalism seems to go further then coverage and analysis, it perpetuates the need for personal interaction and involvement in the “big picture”. 
This form of information retrieval and distribution is particularly fit for world events such as the World Cups, the Olympics, the Commonwealth Games, the Tour de France, etc. It openly presents a speculative narrative with particular known biases which are used to the advantage of the writer and reader. An American journalist reporting about the Olympics would be report to the american people with an American biases, yet there is the distinct attempt to locate/discover the larger understanding of the event in context with the world and its parts (other countries, societies, and/or cultures).

Friday, September 16th, 2011

Event/Coverage/Audience Cycle

Event coverage is naturally subject to bias. Here, “The Event” is seen not as a single node from which coverage is emanating from, but a cyclical event from which future events, perception, and coverage change due not only to each other, but cycles of events in the past as well. Thus, in order to understand an event and resultant reactions, you must understand previous events and reactions. Furthermore, it becomes important to speculate how an event and coverage will affect future events and coverage.

Inherent in this speculation is the relationship between (1) the Event, (2) what those people or groups providing the news coverage think (generally and specifically about event), (3) What is actually reported as the event news coverage, and (4) what the audience of the news coverage think about.

As this drawing suggests, the way something (in this case, the event) is covered is linked to how the audience thinks through the control coverage has on what the audience thinks about.







Friday, September 16th, 2011

Olympic Broadcast

The number of countries broadcasting the Olympics has steadily increased over the past 50 years.  There have been a few blips in lower number of countries during some years but overall there is a very visible upward trend.  This is mostly likely due to the advances in technology in counties over time, enabling them to receive and cable companies able to afford to buy the rights to broadcast the Olympics.  There is a direct correlation with the number of countries broadcasting and the revenue gained from it.  The is a plateauing of broadcasting counties in the 2000’s most likely due to the fact that most countries have caught up to technology, as well as the wide spread introduction to the internet, enabling more people to view the games online rather than on tv.



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